Насилие в школах и защита социальной справедливости

Том 8 (2023), № 1, с. 59-73

[ ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ ]

Статья (файл: pdf, размер: 365 КБ, просмотров: 59)

Аннотация:

Статья касается проблем, вызывающих озабоченность, связанную с насилием (буллингом) в школах и школьных учреждениях. Как международное явление, оно рассматривается на анализе работ из США, Европы, ЮАР, Египта, России. Затрагиваются вопросы, связанные с насилием, совершаемым на территории школы, но которое уходит корнями в более широкий социальный контекст и неразрывно связано с такими проблемами, как экономическое развитие страны, бедность, безработица, алкоголизм, наркомания, быстрая урбанизация, иммиграция, гендерное неравенство, расовое и этническое различие, разрушение семейной жизни и «социальный распад» в обществе с переходной экономикой. Школьное насилие рассматривается как нежелательная форма поведения учащихся, приводящая к негативным воздействиям на другого человека или организацию. Это поведение может включать действия против объектов (кража, вандализм и поджог); против сверстников (от запугивания и киберзапугивания, физических и онлайн-издевательств и нападений до сексуальных домогательств и изнасилований), против персонала (физического, словесного, сексуального характера) и других действий «без жертв» девиантного или нежелательного поведения, такого как прогулы. Степень психологического дистресса лица, получающего специальную образовательную поддержку, связана с интеллектуальными и языковыми нарушениями, является препятствием для социальной интеграции. При этом показывается, что очень часто насилие выступает как защитная агрессия. Слишком многие дети сегодня чувствуют себя абсолютно беззащитными. Они живут в нестабильное время и в нестабильной семье (развод родителей, страх взрослых потерять работу, финансовые трудности в семье…). Школа же, точнее, непрерывные изменения в системе ее требований, делают детей еще более неуверенными. И они защищаются от всех и всего сразу. Защищаются так как умеют. Следовательно, важно установить границы дозволенного: дети принимают правила, если они основаны на здравом смысле и не унижают их. Важно учить детей мирному стилю общения, пресекать унижения.

Ключевые слова:

насилие, формы насилия в школах, защитная агрессия, границы дозволенного,
социальная справедливость

Авторы:

А.С. Колесников
Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Институт философии,
г. Санкт-Петербург, Российская Федерация

Для цитирования:

Колесников А.С. Насилие в школах и защита социальной справедливости //
Социальная компетентность. 2023. Т. 8. № 1. C. 59–73.

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